When you write a research paper and quote an author’s words exactly or present his/her ideas, you must give credit to the author or source (when there is no author) by using an internal citation.
Internal citations tell your reader the source of your information. They are placed in your paper directly after the quoted or paraphrased information. The internal citation includes the author’s last name or the title of the source and the page number on which the original material is located. That author or source will also be listed on your Works Consulted page.
The following must be credited by using an internal citation:
- Direct quotations
- Closely paraphrased statements
- Significant phrases or clever expressions
- Charts, diagrams, graphs, or maps
- Minute facts, statistics, or data